By 1914, European powers had united in two enemy alliances: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance, while Great Britain, France, and Russia were part of the Triple Entente. , Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions. Between 1648 and 1655 in the central and eastern Europe ended hegemony of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. , Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent. Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy, the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony. 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To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993 meeting of the European Council in Copenhagen. Although over half of Europe's original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation, Europe still has over one quarter of its land area as forest, such as the broadleaf and mixed forests, taiga of Scandinavia and Russia, mixed rainforests of the Caucasus and the Cork oak forests in the western Mediterranean. The four largest urban areas of Europe are Istanbul, Moscow, Paris and London, each have over 10 million residents, and as such have been described as megacities. Although Eastern Europe covers the eastern portion of Europe, there is no consensus on the exact area it covers since the term has a wide range of socioeconomic and geopolitical connotations. [p] Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change (thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz); in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union.  This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and the UK. Beekes has located toponyms related to that of Europa in the territory of ancient Greece and localities like that of Europos in ancient Macedonia. Signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership. We highly appreciate your support and value your feedback. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. EU countries are to impose modest sanctions on Russia for its second use of a prohibited chemical weapon in Europe. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. Check out the link below. The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical Greek and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries, often translated from Arabic into Latin. The Council of the European Union (also called the "Council" and the "Council of Ministers", its former title) forms one half of the EU's legislature. Possessing the EU's largest armed forces and the largest national defence budget of the bloc, France is also the only EU country that has power projection capabilities outside of Europe. , Two world wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. , Isolated monastic communities were the only places to safeguard and compile written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from Western Europe though they were preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire.
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