1847-48 : A potato famine in Ireland leads to a mass migration of Irish into America's coal towns. Not satisfied with a mere prison term for Jack Kehoe, authorities launched in late 1876 a prosecution of Kehoe for a murder committed in 1862. Something must be done to stop it." It was time to begin to put the perpetrators on trial.  Similar imagery was used during the Rebecca Riots in Wales.. , Another plan was in the works, this one against two night watchmen, Pat McCarron and Benjamin K. Yost, a Tamaqua Borough Patrolman. Assist to the utmost of your power the good landlord, in getting his rents. , Campbell, just before his execution, allegedly slapped a muddy handprint on his cell wall stating "There is proof of my words. Lizzo’s 2020 BBMAs Acceptance Speech Was A Powerful Reminder To Get Out & Vote, Anya Taylor-Joy Opens Up About Playing Furiosa After Charlize Theron in ‘Mad Max’ Origin Story, Noel Gallagher’s daughter Anais on Oasis rocker refusing to wear mask, Helen Flanagan says she couldn’t leave the house due to ‘exhausting’ extreme morning sickness, Jenny Ryan: The Chase star apologises as she shares ‘regretful’ announcement ‘So sorry’, James May: The Grand Tour host makes U-turn 2 days into health farm after falling ill, Piers Morgan and Susanna Reid 'KISS' on Good Morning Britain, Lorraine Kelly pokes fun at Dominic West and wife’s united front after Lily James pics, Toni Braxton Calls Out Sister Tamar's Ex-Boyfriend David Adefeso, Jeremy Kyle Show guest dead: Kristie Bishop dies of drug overdose aged 35, See Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift and More Stars at the 2010 Grammys. In addition to the railroad, Gowen owned two-thirds of the coal mines in southeastern Pennsylvania.  In some areas the terms Ribbonmen and Molly Maguires were both used for similar activism but at different times.  Molly Maguire history is sometimes presented as the prosecution of an underground movement that was motivated by personal vendettas, and sometimes as a struggle between organized labor and powerful industrial forces. Gowen suggested that if McParlan had been able to continue his work for another year, prosecutions could have reached the very top ranks of the national organization of Mollys: "You would have had the pleasure of hanging some men who are not citizens of Schuylkill County. Kerrigan was allowed to go free. The three defendants, Michael J. Doyle, Jimmy Kerrigan and Edward Kelly, had elected to receive separate trials. Others supported her testimony amid speculation that Kerrigan was receiving special treatment due to the fact that McParland was engaged to his sister-in-law, Mary Ann Higgins.  Although there had been fifty "inexplicable murders" between 1863 and 1867 in Schuylkill County, progress in the investigations was slow. The Mollys developed a system of reciprocity for their violence. , On the last day of the month, with Gowen's strikebreakers pouring in, the Summit telegraph office was burned, a train derailed, and McParland advised [his Pinkerton supervisor] to send in uniformed police to preserve order.. By the 1870s, powerful financial syndicates controlled the railroads and the coalfields. Herded into freight trains by the hundreds, these workers often replaced English-speaking miners who, according to labor historian George Korson: ...were compelled to give way in one coal field after another, either abandoning the industry altogether for other occupations or else retreating, like the vanishing American Indian, westward..., ...faced constant hazards from violation of safety precautions, such as they were. Another miner, Hugh McGeehan, a 21-year-old who had been secretly identified as a killer by McParland, was fired upon and wounded by unknown assailants. , The first trial of defendants McGeehan, Carroll, Duffy, James Boyle, and James Roarity for the killing of Yost commenced in May 1876. , A Pinkerton agent, Robert J. Linden, was brought in to support McParland while serving with the Coal and Iron Police.  This trial was declared a mistrial due to the death of one of the jurors.  Some miners faced additional burdens of prejudice and persecution.
One witness, for example, told jurors: "As to his conduct, that has always been good, but as far as the reputation goes, I never did hear much good." McParlan once again provided the key testimony, describing an AOH meeting in Tamaqua where a reward for Hurley was discussed. On May 6, James McParlan, guarded by fellow Pinkertons, returned to Pottsville to testify in the Benjamin Yost murder trial of five Mollys. Among the Irish immigrants were members of a secret society, with a history of agrarian agitation and violence, called the Molly Maguires (or Ribbonmen).
Their reports indicate that violence could be traced to the time of the Civil War, but that in the five-year existence of the WBA, "the relations existing between employers and employees" had greatly improved. If the bosses exercise tyranny over the men they appear to look to the association for help. The jury took only twenty minutes to decide the case. After beginning his investigation, he estimated that there were about 450 members of the AOH in Schuylkill County. Instead, the fate of the Mollys was decided largely by German immigrants, many of whom admitted to understanding English only poorly. Another troubling feature of the trials was the systematic exclusion of Irish Americans from juries. Pinkerton had in mind thirty-year-old James McParlan, a young man who had advanced rapidly up the Pinkerton ranks. The defense attorneys repeatedly sought to portray McParland as an agent provocateur who was responsible for not warning people of their imminent deaths. On February 1, the jury returned a verdict of guilty on the first-degree murder charge. The content was routinely made available to Pinkerton clients in typed reports.
Gowen's emotional and far-ranging summation led to a motion for a mistrial by the defense. I reported what those men were. Four (Alexander Campbell, John "Yellow Jack" Donahue, Michael J. Doyle and Edward J. Kelly) were hanged on 21 June 1877, at a Carbon County prison in Mauch Chunk (renamed Jim Thorpe in 1953), for the murders of John P. Jones and Morgan Powell, both mine bosses, following a trial later described by a Carbon County judge, John P. Lavelle, as follows: The Molly Maguire trials were a surrender of state sovereignty. McParland was prevailed upon not to resign.
Jack Kehoe, along many other Irish miners, shared anti-Union sentiments (Kehoe, for example, used the occasion to spit on the American flag). The Threshers, the Peep o' Day Boys, the Lady Rocks (deriving from Captain Rock and the Rockite movement), and the Lady Clares also sometimes disguised themselves as women. Horan, p. 152. , Most Irish mine workers belonged to the WBA and roughly half the officers of its executive board in 1872 bore Irish names. July 1862: John ("Black Jack") Kehoe moves to Girardville, in western Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. Through a mix of warnings and diplomacy, McParlan managed to carry out his expected duties without loss of life. His orders from Allan Pinkerton were clear: "You are to remain in the field until every cut-throat has paid with his life for the lives so cruelly taken." Largely through the efforts of one man, James McParlan, working undercover and gaining the trust of the secretive organization's leaders, the fearful grip over the anthracite region was broken, and one Molly after another led to his date with the gallows. McParland had no direct evidence, but had recorded that the four admitted their guilt to him. Every man engaged in any enterprise of magnitude, or connected with industrial pursuits, left his home in the morning with his hand upon his pistol, unknowing whether he would again return alive. In its November 1877 issue, Harper's New Monthly Magazine published an interviewer's comments: "A miner tells me that he often brought his food uneaten out of the mine from want of time; for he must have his car loaded when the driver comes for it, or lose one of the seven car-loads which form his daily work. A private police force arrested the alleged defenders, and private attorneys for the coal companies prosecuted them. , A legal self-help organization for Irish immigrants existed in the form of the Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH), but it is generally accepted that the Mollies existed as a secret organization in Pennsylvania, and used the AOH as a front. McParlan's men did not kill Jones--that job fell to Mollys Doyle and Edward Kelly. Mollies sometimes adopted the practice of dressing in women's clothing and visiting shopkeepers. No one stood in graver danger than mine superintendents and bosses.
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