On October 4, 2004, he spoke at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago on behalf of the Institute's work; it was his last reported public appearance. The film quickly closed, although Jean-Pierre Dorléac was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Costume Design in 1980. Reeve was born on September 25, 1952, in New York City, the son of Barbara Pitney Lamb, a journalist; and Franklin D'Olier Reeve (1928–2013), a teacher, novelist, poet, and scholar. I felt that the new Superman ought to reflect that contemporary male image." Early reviews savaged the film as overly sentimental and melodramatic, and an actors' strike prevented Reeve and Seymour from doing publicity. He then returned to continue filming on the not yet finished production of Superman II. , Reeve suffered from asthma and allergies since childhood. In the years following the accident, Reeve returned to creative work, directing In the Gloaming (1997) and receiving a Screen Actors Guild Award and a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in the television remake of Rear Window (1998). This cervical spinal injury, which paralyzed him from the neck down, also halted his breathing.  Reeve during this time was directing the animated film Everyone's Hero.  A memorial service for Reeve was held at the Unitarian Church in Westport, Connecticut, which both Reeve and his wife had attended for several years. Reeve's audition was in front of 10 faculty members, including John Houseman, who had just won an Academy Award for The Paper Chase. It is terribly important that you become a serious classical actor. After the screen test, his driver said, "I'm not supposed to tell you this, but you've got the part. He was best known for playing Superman in four films, beginning with the groundbreaking Superman (1978) for which he won a BAFTA Award. Lynn Stalmaster, the casting director, put Reeve's picture and résumé on the top of the pile three separate times, only to have the producers throw it out each time. The doctor advised Reeve to eat a more healthy diet.  However, both Reeve's wife Dana and his doctor John McDonald believed that an adverse reaction to a drug caused Reeve's death. Some gossip columns rumored a romance between the two. Reeve used his celebrity status for several philanthropic causes. , In 2002 and 2004, Reeve survived several serious infections believed to have originated from his bone marrow.  The morning after the meeting, Reeve was sent a 300-page script. The cast was unhappy, but Reeve later said that he liked Lester and considered Superman II to be his favorite of the series. He refused compensation. Johnson enrolled Christopher and his brother, Benjamin, in Princeton Country Day School, which later merged with Miss Fine's School for Girls to become the co-educational Princeton Day School. The training regimen consisted of running in the morning, followed by two hours of weightlifting and ninety minutes on the trampoline. In April 2004, Random House published Reeve's second book, Nothing Is Impossible. The understudy finished the play for Reeve, and a doctor treated him.  Reeve was briefly involved with Scientology but opted out of becoming a member. On the first night of the play's run, Reeve entered the stage, said his first line, and then promptly fainted. , Following the first Superman movie, Reeve realized that Hollywood producers wanted him to be an action star. Hesseltine had seen Reeve in A Month in the Country and wanted to represent him. Reeve denied being Superman but displayed the superpowers throughout that entire episode. He played a Russian sailor in The Hostage and Belyayev in A Month in the Country. Through the Make-A-Wish Foundation, he visited terminally ill children. They stayed in touch for years after the play's run. They had another son, Benjamin, born on October 6, 1953. , Reeve lobbied for expanded federal funding on embryonic stem cell research to include all embryonic stem cell lines in existence and for self-governance to make open-ended scientific inquiry of the research. Dana and Will also had small roles in The Brooke Ellison Story. The film was well received. At this time, he had received scripts for Picket Fences and Chicago Hope and was asked by CBS if he wanted to start his own television series. He later said, "I found most of the scripts of that genre poorly constructed, and I felt the starring roles could easily be played by anyone with a strong physique." Beginning in the 1980s, Reeve advocated for environmental and human-rights causes, and for federal funding of the arts. In their dialects class with Edith Skinner, Williams had no trouble mastering all dialects naturally, whereas Reeve was more meticulous about it.  The most notable of these was Bump in the Night based on the novel by Isabelle Holland in which Reeve played a child molester who abducts a young boy in New York City. Although a non-smoker, she was diagnosed with lung cancer on August 9, 2005. Reeve said that his father, who was a professor of literature and came to many of the performances, was the man who most captivated Hepburn. He joined the Environmental Air Force and used his Cheyenne II turboprop plane to take government officials and journalists over areas of environmental damage. Reeve was an early member of the group, along with Susan Sarandon, Alec Baldwin, and Blythe Danner. After his death, Dana Reeve took his board seat with TechHealth until her death in March 2006. Barbara Pitney Lamb married Tristam B. Johnson, a stockbroker, in 1959. Paramedics arrived three minutes later and immediately took measures to get air into his lungs. The scenes of Reeve and Welling feature music cues from 1978's Superman: The Movie, composed by John Williams and arranged by Mark Snow. Unless, of course, they offer you a shitload of money to do something else. My old friend had helped me know that somehow I was going to be okay.  The next year, Reeve received a full summer contract with the San Diego Shakespeare Festival, with roles as Edward IV in Richard III, Fenton in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and Dumaine in Love's Labour's Lost at the Old Globe Theatre.  Reeve blamed the failure of the film on poor editing.  Reeve also appeared in the Smallville episode "Legacy", in which he met again with fellow stage actor John Glover, who played Lionel Luthor in the show. They agreed that his first year at Juilliard would be counted as his senior year at Cornell. He traveled across the country to make speeches. In July 2003, Christopher Reeve's continuing frustration with the pace of stem cell research in the U.S. led him to Israel, a country that was then, according to him, at the center of research in spinal cord injury. In that episode, Dr. Swann brings to Clark Kent (Tom Welling) information about where he comes from and how to use his powers for the good of mankind. In 1984, Reeve appeared in The Aspern Papers with Vanessa Redgrave.  The fan community met the episode with rave reviews and praised it as being among the series' best to this day. In one performance, Reeve, who played the hero, drew his sword out too high and accidentally destroyed a row of lights above him. "Actor Regains Some Movement, Doctor Says", Christopher Reeve Testimony: April 26, 2000, S. 1758 'Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001', Christopher Reeve Testimony: March 5, 2002, "Superhero Flies To Israel, by Larry Derfner", "Christopher Reeve: Trip to Israel July 2003", "Christopher Reeve: Israel at Center of World Research on Paralysis, Israel21c". The same year, Reeve portrayed partially corrupt Catholic priest John Flaherty making challenging decisions during World War II in Monsignor. , During My Life, Stark Hesseltine told Reeve that he had been asked to audition for the leading role as Clark Kent/Superman in the big budget film Superman (1978). At the end of this episode, Reeve and Welling appeared in a short spot inviting people to support the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation. ", Reeve was elected Chairman of the American Paralysis Association and Vice Chairman of the National Organization on Disability. Not long after making these plans, the family went to Culpeper, Virginia, for an equestrian competition. , At the Institute, one of his aides was a Jamaican man named Glenn "Juice" Miller, who helped him learn how to get into the shower and how to use a powered wheelchair, which was activated by blowing air through a straw. The two met, but Reeve was surprised to find that Hesseltine strongly supported his promise to his mother and step-father to complete college. The film exceeded expectations and performed well at the box office for what was considered to be an art house film. Reeve readily accepted the role. He fought against the limit when scientists revealed that an early research technique that involved mixing the human stem cells with mouse cells contaminated most of the old lines..  Reeve died on October 10, 2004, at the age of 52. I already knew that I had only a fifty-fifty chance of surviving the surgery. She tearfully mouthed back, "I am only going to say this once: I will support whatever you want to do because this is your life, and your decision. Because the media was constantly covering him, he decided to use his name to put focus on spinal cord injuries. He was taking horse-riding lessons and trained five to six days a week for competition in combined training events. He was best known for playing the DC Comics character Superman, beginning with the acclaimed Superman (1978), for which he won a BAFTA Award, and, reprised the role in three sequels it spawned later on which has established him being widely regarded as one of the greatest actors of all time including an appearance in the CW Superman-themed television series Smallville (2001) alongside Tom … He did this both because he believed that intense physical therapy could regenerate the nervous system, and because he wanted his body to be strong enough to support itself if a cure was found. Reeve then moved his left index finger on command. Reeve finished in fourth place out of 27 in the dressage, before walking his cross-country course. He argued that stem cell implantation is unsafe unless the stem cells contain the patient's own DNA and that because somatic cell nuclear transfer is done without fertilizing an egg, it can be fully regulated. Later that year, Franklin Reeve married Helen Schmidinger, a Columbia University graduate student. Reeve as Richard Collier romanced actress Elise McKenna, a popular stage actress from the early 20th century, played by Jane Seymour.  On October 9, 2004, Reeve attended his son Will's hockey game. This meant moving to Los Angeles, which would place him even further from Matthew and Alexandra, who lived in London. Ultimately, however, at the advice of his mother, he applied for college. Both of these films with this title were based on the 1957 novel The Midwich Cuckoos by John Wyndham.  Of Christopher Reeve, UC Irvine said, "in the years following his injury, Christopher did more to promote research on spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders than any other person before or since". , Reeve's widow, Dana Reeve, headed the Christopher Reeve Foundation after his death. Film director Richard Lester, who had worked with the producers previously on the two-parter The Three Musketeers (1973) and The Four Musketeers (1974), replaced Donner. In 1997, Reeve made his directorial debut with the HBO film In the Gloaming with Robert Sean Leonard, Glenn Close, Whoopi Goldberg, Bridget Fonda, and David Strathairn. " Both of Reeve's children from his relationship with Gae Exton had uncredited appearances in a deleted scene in which Superman rescues a girl, played by his daughter Alexandra, and reunites her with her brother, played by his son Matthew, after Nuclear Man creates a tornado in Smallville. Reeve's father was a Princeton University graduate studying for a master's degree in Russian at Columbia University before Christopher's birth. , Reeve kept his body as physically strong as possible by using specialized exercise machines. To prepare for the role, he was coached by an amputee on how to walk on artificial legs. After most of the footage had been shot, the producers had a disagreement with director Richard Donner over various matters, including money and special effects, and they mutually parted ways.
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